Monday, August 24, 2020

Comparing Qur’anic and Biblical Depictions of Abraham Essay Example

Contrasting Qur’anic and Biblical Depictions of Abraham Essay Upwards of 50 characters who show up in the Holy Bible likewise show up in the Holy Qur’an. This incorporates of Abraham, Issac and Ismael also. The Qur’an, having seemed seven centuries after the Holy Bible, accepted by Muslims to be the more definitive content. Thusly, there are numerous contrasts between the narratives of these characters in the two writings, with adherents and pastors separated on which record is the more honest one. This paper will take up the recorded character of Abraham (and his more distant family) and distinguish how it is depicted contrastingly in the two strict sacred texts being referred to. Specifically, it will contend that the tone and good severity related with the life of Abraham (and his family) appears to be less tolerant in the Holy Bible when contrasted with that in Holy Qur’an. There are likenesses in the two records, in that emissaries come to Abraham’s homestead (on their approach to devastating Sodom and Gomorrah) and guarantee him that by God’s leniency he and his better half will have a kid. After hearing this, both Abraham and his better half Sarah are shocked, for they think they are too old to even consider having a kid. In Genesis 18:12, Sarah notes â€Å"After I am waxed old will I have delight, my ruler being old also?†. So also, in Hud 11:17, deciphered by Abdullah Yusuf Ali, she says â€Å"Alas for me! Will I bear a youngster, seeing I am an elderly person, and my better half here is an elderly person? That would in reality be a great thing!†. In the two cases, holy messengers answer back to her questions and guarantee her that with God’s will she will before long be bearing a child. We will compose a custom exposition test on Comparing Qur’anic and Biblical Depictions of Abraham explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom exposition test on Comparing Qur’anic and Biblical Depictions of Abraham explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom exposition test on Comparing Qur’anic and Biblical Depictions of Abraham explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer Later in the Biblical account, God attempts to test Abraham’s unwaveringness toward him and requests him to forfeit his child. Being the reliable supporter that he is, Abraham doesn't spare a moment before following up on his requests. Satisfied and intrigued by Abraham’s unwaveringness and dedication, God intercedes at the last possible second and solicits him to prevent the penance from his child and rather offers a substitute penance. Be that as it may, while the diagram of this story is the equivalent in the two blessed writings, they likewise convey pivotal contrasts. Right off the bat, in the Genesis, there is no equivocalness with regards to which of Abraham’s two children God is alluding to. It is very evident that the individual proposed for penance is Isaac. In the Holy Qur’an, then again, there is no unequivocal notice of either son’s name, however there are solid insights that it is Ishmael. Qur’an likewise has it that this occasi on happened past to the introduction of Isaac. In the Genesis, God speaks with Abraham straightforwardly, while in the Qur’an, he shows up as a dream. In the Holy Qur’an, Abraham is expressed to have told his child that he will be yielded. In the Bible, then again, Abraham doesn’t unequivocally notice this, yet rather tells that â€Å"God will give the sacrifice†. In any case, what reinforces the postulation, (to be specific that the tone and good doctrine in the story of the life of Abraham is milder in the Qur’an than in the Bible) is the accompanying understanding of the Qur’anic account. â€Å"Quran instructs us that God never advocates fiendish. See 7:28 and 16:90. It is Satan who advocates shrewdness and bad habit (24:21). For a dad to butcher his child, is an underhanded demonstration that can't and isn't from God. It can just originate from Satan. The Quran never said that God advised Abraham to slaughter (penance) his child. Rather, the Quran instructs us that Abraham had a fantasy in which he saw himself butchering his child. Abraham accepted the fantasy and felt that the fantasy was from God (The Quran never said the fantasy was from God). The decision of the wording in the Quran is critical. No word was picked unintentionally or crazy. Each word and articulation was purposely picked by God.† (, 2011) In the Holy Qur’an, reliable the tolerance postulation of this exposition, Isaac is relegated the status of an Imam †somebody who has mysterious forces. Supporting proof for the theory can likewise be found in the different records of Abraham’s connection to his nephew Lot. For instance, the Bible says that Lot is a gay and that his offbeat guilty pleasures in Sodom and Gomorrah are condemnable acts. In the Qur’an then again, Lot is portrayed as a prophet of a similar family as his renowned uncle Abraham. Then again, Bible doesn't consider him to be of that height, as he was tormented interminably by the inappropriate sexual acts he saw in Sodom. The proof for this could be accumulated from Genesis (19:1-29). In spite of the fact that, the two records do unite in that they express that Abraham asked and argued to God to show leniency toward his nephew, the similitudes end there. For instance, in the Bible, God vows to save Sodom of its looming pulverization, if just ten men of appropriate lead could be found there. After neglecting to locate these ten men, God proceeds to start a spell of blazing precipitation of stones upon the reviled city. In the Qur’annic account, God orders Abraham to not argue for his nephew’s case, as occasions were at that point pre-appointed. The destiny of Lot’s spouse is told contrastingly in the two Holy books. Section 19:26 of the Genesis has it that after resisting God’s requests to not pivot to see the city’s obliteration, Lot’s spouse will be transformed into a mainstay of salt. Then again, this destiny was foreseen by Lot, as he was educated by blessed messengers of the equivalent preceding the occasion. Predictab le with the theory contended in this paper, the Bible says that an incestous connection among Lot and his two little girls happened after the loss of his significant other. Entry (19:30-38) of Genesis portrays this occasion, whereby his two little girls lie adjacent to their dad in order to get impregnated by him and convey his seed. In the Qur’an, then again, this occurance is obvious by its nonattendance, underscoring the proposition that it underplays sexual diversions and deviations contrasted with the Holy Bible. Works Cited: God Never Ordered Abraham to Sacrifice his Son, Islamic Scholarly Article, recovered from on fourteenth February, 2011. ‘Abdullah Yusuf ‘Ali. The Meaning of the Holy Qur’an. Amana Press 1991 (first ed. 1946). Robert Alter. The Five Books of Moses: A Translation with Commentary. W.W. Norton Co., 2004.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Legalization of Marijuana Research Paper Example

Sanctioning of Marijuana Research Paper Example Sanctioning of Marijuana Paper Sanctioning of Marijuana Paper Without his management and steady assistance, this exposition would not have been conceivable. Uncommon felicitations to our families, kindly acknowledge our friendly a debt of gratitude is in order for giving your warm consolation, keen direction and supporting assessments which truly helped us a great deal. Last or more all, we acclaim God, for giving us the chance and giving us the ability to continue effectively for this examination paper. Rundown of Tables I. Presentation 1. 1 Background of the investigation 1. 2 Statement of the difficult 1. 3 Significance of the examination 1. 4 Scope and Delimitation of the examination II. Hypothetical and Conceptual Framework 2. 1 Review of related writing 2. 2 Review of related examinations 2. 3 Conceptual system 2. 4 Hypothesis 2. 5 Definition of terms II. Strategy 3. 1 Locale of the Study 3. 2 Sample size 3. 3 Data gathering devices 3. 4 Data gathering strategy IV. Introduction and Analysis of Data V. End IV-Results and Analysis This section will talk about the consequences of the information gathering. In the initial segment of the review, the respondents are gotten some information about their segment profile, for example, name, year and area. For the subsequent part, the respondents here inquired as to whether pot ought to be lawful for clinical use, if weed ought to be sanctioned for recreational use, if the respondents accept that war on drugs has been effective and if the respondents feel that administration endeavors against cannabis ought to be expanded. In conclusion, for the third part, they would put maryjane as far as its negative wellbeing impacts on the human. Information Collection The individuals that have done the depressed were the a portion of the third year understudies of Infant Jesus Interiors Center. The segment includes Ill-Faraday and III-Diaphanous with an aggregate of 22 respondents and 29 respondents each particularly having an absolute populace of 51 understudies as in general respondents. Information Analysis CLCconcede 0area and Section Table 1 . Study questions and respondents answer. Questions Yes No 37 14 2. 36 3. Should weed be legitimate for clinical use? Should pot be sanctioned for recreational use? 15 Do you accept that war on drugs has been effective? 10 41 4. DO you feel that administration endeavors against weed ought to be expanded? 21 30 Figure 1 . Level of the study inquiries concerning pot. Dominant part of the respondents (15 votes, 29%) places pot in under that f a sugar while the least spot the respondents (9 votes, 1 would put pot is more prominent than that of liquor as appeared in Figure 2. Figure 2. Level of where might the respondents would put their weed. Rundown of Figures Figure 1. 1 : Marijuana Leaves Marijuana Cigarette Figure 1. 2 Figure 1. 3 : Intake of Marijuana Experimental utilization Of Marijuana ABSTRACT Figure 1. 4 : Marijuana use and relational savagery are significant general medical issues. The current audit looks at the accessible observational and hypothetical writing on the connection among maryjane and savagery, including past shocking models, the connection between weed use and relational brutality (counting close accomplice viciousness), and the connection between cannabis withdrawal and viciousness. While results from lab based investigations are uncertain, consequences of cross-sectional and longitudinal research offer help for an affiliation be;en weed use/withdrawal and different kinds of brutality. Given the absence of exact help for existing models, another biophysically model of the pot viciousness relationship is proposed. Analyzing techniques to test this model and utilization of current endings to treatment are talked about. This paper will talk about the moral issues and propose the exemplary nature of legitimizing pot on the government level, as a controlled substance, while taking two positions: (1 ) the advantages of sanctioning pot far exceed its dangers, and (2) their irregularities in current legitimate approaches administering weed according to increasingly hazardous medications, for example, liquor. I. Presentation What are the predominant issues for and against legitimization of maryjane? Because something is unlawful doesn't mean it is awful; similarly, if something is legitimate doesnt mean it isn't awful. Dissimilar to law which depends on speech abilities to guard an effectively characterized lawful position morals attempts to exclusively figure out what is good and bad paying little heed to any law that may, or may not, as of now exist identifying with the current issue. This paper will propose the honorableness of legitimizing cannabis on the government level as a controlled substance, while taking two Stances: (1) its advantages far exceed related dangers, and (2) there are Inconsistencies in current legitimate strategies with weed comparable to unlawful medications that are increasingly risky just as those that are lawful, acknowledged, and promptly accessible to he open. In particular, this paper will analyze marijuanas advantages and dangers against those of the most widely recognized legitimate recreational medication right now being used today, liquor. This paper will abstain from talking about sanctioning of clinical maryjane, as 12 states as of now permit its utilization for therapeutic purposes, and there are as of now more than 2000 authentic weed dispensaries the country over. Nonetheless, ownership and utilization of weed are as yet illicit under government law; and bureaucratic law bests state laws unfailingly. Because of the prevalence and continuous across the board, and recorded utilization of weed, another look ought to be given to its ribbon in the public arena as a lawful recreational medication nearby, or in any event, supplanting liquor and tobacco. So as to completely acknowledge marijuanas place in human culture, one should initially grasp its commonness as a therapeutic and recreational medication. Weed was developed as far back as 5000 years prior. In old Chinese and Vivid societies, it treated a wide scope of afflictions, including jungle fever and ailment (Silver, Ransom, Tillie, 2010). Pre-1 notwithstanding its recreational properties, hemp a result of the pot plant was a significant money crop utilized for apparel, texture, and medication. Both George Washington and Thomas Jefferson developed it, and drafts of the Declaration of Independence were composed on hemp paper. Hemp creation was obligatory and requested developed for the United Kingdom (Silver et al. , 2010). With the ascent of the 1840-1860 scholarly development in France, maryjane picked up in prominence as an intoxicant of the scholarly classes, because of cases of it invigorating ones creative mind and imagination. In the United States, clinical enthusiasm for weed utilize was prove in 1 860 by the assembling of the Committee on Cannabis Indict of the Ohio State Medical Society, which ported on its helpful applications Schistose of, n. D. ). The Enslaving Years In 1 930, Harry Enslaving headed up the recently shaped Federal Bureau of Narcotics and waged holy war to ban pot. Congress passed the Marijuana Tax Act in July 1937 because of weight by Enslaving, who dreaded the utilization and spread of pot explicitly by Mexicans (Musts, 1972). Subjugating enrolled the media and film businesses to additionally demonize weed. In 1938, the misuse film Reefer Madness connected the utilization of maryjane by secondary younger students to attempt at manslaughter mishaps, murder, self destruction, assault, and plunge into franticness (Reefer Madness, 2010). Architects endeavors to demonize pot were effective to such an extent that by the 1 asss, open dread of cannabis connected its utilization to government topple just as to socialism, Americas most-dreaded foe of the time (Silver et al. , 2010). The New War on Drugs In 1 961 , the Single Convention Narcotic Treaty made creation and flexibly of opiate sedates a universal wrongdoing. By and by, maryjane recovered its prevalence and brought forth the hippy subculture of the late sasss, who saw weed as representing Americas opportunities. Besides, the Vietnam War acquainted maryjane with the individuals who in any case would not have utilized it our warriors in Vietnam (Silver et al. , 2010). In 1 971 , President Richard Nixon announced war on drugs, calling it open foe number one. He made the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEAD) and refused to compromise position against drugs (Silver et al. , 2010). After 10 years, President Ronald Reggaes organization proceeded with the war on drugs when First Lady Nancy Reagan propelled her Just Say No battle (Silver et al. , 2010). This well known catchphrase before long turned into a mantra presented by primary younger students all through the United States. President Bill Clinton pledged to keep up the battle against drugs, yet was not as methodical as Reagan or Nixon. Thusly, the Mexican medication cartels got more grounded during the Clinton years (Silver et al. , 2010). September 11, 2001 denoted another period in the battle against maryjane. The United States fixed its outskirt approaches upon President George Bushs revelation of war on fear. This successfully smothered importation of weed from Mexico. Therefore, the Mexican medication cartels went to developing maryjane inside United States outskirts instead of sneaking it across (Silver 1. Proclamation of the Problem This examination paper looks to decide the upsides of having maryjane here in the Philippines. Weed is the most widely recognized illegal medication utilized in the United States. After a time of decrease in the most recent decade, its utilization has been expanding among youngsters since 2007, comparing to a reducing impression of the medications chances that might be related with expanded open discussion over the medications legitimate status. In spite of the fact that the central government thinks about cannabis as a Schedule I substance (having no restorative uses and high hazard for misuse), two states have legitimized weed for grown-up recreational SE, and 21 states have passed laws permitting its utilization as a treatment for certain ailments. Be that as it may, in the Philippines, as the law stands today, weed is unlawful. It is a dange

Saturday, July 25, 2020

How To Manage A Chatty Class

How To Manage A Chatty Class Julie, Head of Content and Curriculum, shares tips for managing a chatty class. If you are losing instruction time due to crosstalk and constant interruptions, these strategies will help you get back on track tomorrow. by Julie Mason It sounds good in theory: your students are all eager to share their ideas and participate in class. However, what happens when your chatty class is off topic and engaged in so much crosstalk that you can’t get a word in, let alone teach the lesson? Here are our favorite strategies for encouraging participation while not losing essential instruction time: Put Your Two Cents In This one works well for all grade levels. The premise is simple: you give each student two pennies. If you aren’t comfortable using actual money, you can give them two small Lego bricks, two stickers, really two of anything that is small and can sit on their desk. Each student has two opportunities to share during the lesson. You circulate the room, and collect their “pennies” as they participate. Once they have used both, the expectation is that they shift to listener. It is up to you if you want to require all students to participate twice or not. During the beginning of the year, I recommend offering students the option to pass. I also passed out Post It notes, and if students didn’t want to speak, but still wanted to share, they could write down their comment or question, and I would read it. Parking Lot: Park It! If I was stranded on a deserted island with all my students and could only use one teaching strategy - this one would be it. It is that good. Here is how it works: somewhere in your classroom post a large piece of chart paper on a wall. Create a space for each student and write their names in the space. Make sure that all students have access to Post It notes. Let students know that if they have a burning question or comment during your lesson that they should write it down. When there is a break in the lesson or you shift to independent work or partner work, that they should get up and place their Post It note on their space in the Parking Lot. You can then check the notes and circulate and check in. An added bonus for this one: If students start to interrupt you during a lesson, all you have to say is “Park it!” You can go right back to your teaching, and the student has a place to write down their questions and knows that you will get to them when you are ready. Predictable Structure and Routines If your students are chatty and off topic, it is essential to have a predictable class structure with an entry and exit routine. Greet students at the door as they walk into the room and provide them with a Do Now or activator so they know to sit down and get started, and there is no time for them to start chatting with their neighbor. Write the agenda for class on your board, and use it to redirect students and remind students what needs to get done. Give students an Exit Ticket or provide them with a self-assessment during the last five minutes of class. If students complete the classwork early, give it to them sooner so they have something to do. Make sure you have some choice boards or extensions ready to go for your early finishers so they don’t think they can start chatting and distract other students because their work is done. Stop and Stay Silent I learned this one from my cooperating teacher when I was doing student-teaching. If your students won’t stop talking and it is keeping you from getting through the lesson, stop. Stop talking and stand still. This will feel very uncomfortable at first. You will likely feel like it isn’t working, but trust me. Your students will begin to realize that you are no longer talking. They will stop talking and stare at you. Even once the talking has stopped stay still and silent. Your body language is sending a powerful lesson that you will be respected and not interrupted. You can also try hand signals. I would raise my hand up and ask the students to also raise their hand up. Eventually all hands would go up and it served as a class reset. This is an important expectation to introduce at the beginning of the school year. What strategies do you use for not letting side conversations derail your lesson? Share with us on Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, and Pinterest. Julie Mason is the Head of Content and Curriculum for TeacherVision. She brings an expertise in blended and personalized learning, instructional coaching, and curriculum design to the role. She was a middle and high school English teacher for eight years and most recently taught at Dana Hall, an all girls school in Wellesley, MA. She was a blended and personalized learning instructional coach for K-12 teachers at BetterLesson for two years, and she has presented at The National Principals Conference, ISTE, and ASCD where she shared her expertise on how instructional coaching builds teacher capacity in K-12 schools. She has extensive experience designing and facilitating professional development for teachers, and she oversees the TeacherVision advisory board.

Friday, May 22, 2020

The Impact of the Great Awakening on the Ideological...

Elaborate on the Great Awakening. How did the movement impact the ideological development of the colonies? The colonies were founded in the spirit of a relatively rigid conception of divine election. According to the Calvinist notion which dominated at the time, God had already chosen whom he would save and it was incumbent upon the elect to demonstrate their fitness for heaven upon earth. Gradually, over the course of the 18th century, the rationalist ideas of the Enlightenment that had become common currency in Europe began to permeate America. Religious zeal began to wane, and a more secular approach to life and education was adopted in urban locations and at elite institutions like Harvard and Yale. However, in rural areas of America there was profound resistance to this notion, and the Great Awakening was a response to the perceived negative influence of this secularization (Faragher et al 2009: 120). Preachers like Jonathan Edwards used fire metaphors to counterbalance what many felt was the new spiritual coldness of the rationalist era (Faragher et al 2009: 120). George Whitefield was one of the most influential speakers of the era, and promised an egalitarian salvation for all, regardless of denomination, so long as there was an acceptance of the divine in the listeners heart. This spilt between the secular and the urban and the rural and the religious parallels many of the current red and blue divisions of our own era, in which the social worldview ofShow MoreRelatedWhy Nova Scotia Failed to Join the American Revolution2306 Words   |  10 Pagesgeographic, as well as religious factors that led to Nova Scotians’ lack of attachment to revolutionary ideology in the colonies. During the time of the American Revolution, Nova Scotia was geographically on the northeastern frontier of Massachusetts. 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Friday, May 8, 2020

The Executive s And Outliers Were Red Flags For The Enron...

Enron was facing risks, risks from every angle. You can see from the history to the demise of the company everything was based on risk. Even when it came to the personal lives of those in charge, you can find some type of risk. Being a Houston native, I did not quite understand the reaction to Enron. I did not understand why it went so far as to changing the name of a stadium from Enron to Minute Maid Park. I was only a teen at the time, but now I am not. I now hope to explain my opinion on how the past, the executive’s and outliers were red flags prior to the Enron crisis. My thoughts on how they could have handled the matter. Lastly, express what I would have done if I was an executive or general council to such a company. Above I stated that risks were everywhere in the case of Enron. The custom is that in order to stay in business one must take a risk. I agree that this is essential when done with good intentions and business practices. This is something that lacked in Enron before the bigger crisis emerged. The first red flag for me would have been the â€Å"Valhalla Scandal†. This showed the true character and intentions of Kenny Lay. Which were to get as much money as he could no matter the legality of the practices and who suffers. This shows that some of the risks taken by Lay were not the best, for his company or employees. Since the employee was doing the illegal work, and producing funding. The employee is also who ended up in jail. Moving forward anotherShow MoreRelatedOrganisational Theory230255 Words   |  922 Pagesmanaging, organizing and reflecting on both formal and informal structures, and in this respect you will find this book timely, interesting and valuable. Peter Holdt Christensen, Associate Professor, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark McAuley et al.’s book is thought-provoking, witty and highly relevant for understanding contemporary organizational dilemmas. The book engages in an imaginative way with a wealth of organizational concepts and theories as well as provides insightful examples from the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Economic Factors Affecting Poverty Free Essays

Poverty is a major problem in the United States today. This mind map includes the categories of individual behavior, social factors, economic factors, political factors, and cultural factors are all contributing forces that causes poverty. For economic factors, low wages would be the variable that would lead to poverty. We will write a custom essay sample on The Economic Factors Affecting Poverty or any similar topic only for you Order Now Families that receive low wages would barely support their living expenses. Thus they would not have enough money for programs that would aid their children†s education. Some families think that crime has better incentives than working a low paying job and thus crime could be put in as an economic factor that leads to poverty. Not having enough money for programs like education leads to the individual behavior of illiteracy and lower education, since the parents cannot afford to send their children to upper level education. And if these children know that they have no future in higher education, they will not have the motivation to do well in school and thus dropping out of school. In turn this will lead to having low self-esteem because they know that they will basically be stuck in poverty for the rest of their lives. This will eventually lead to substance abuse because they need something to overcome their high levels of stress that is produced by low self-esteem. In turn substance abuse could lead to sickness and disease, and then could possibly lead to mental illness. Once this happens, individual behavior will cause families to be in poverty. For social factors, discrimination would be the variable that causes poverty. Racial discrimination from an employer could lead for that person to not receive a higher paying job, in which could lead to violence from the potential employee towards the employer. In turn a crime could be committed in revolt of the employer. Thus the social factor of violence interconnects with the economic factor of crime. Also racial discrimination could lead to institutional discrimination. Thus this will lead to substandard schools in which teachers are told to split up a class and place each student in a designated group depending on their race and the teacher†s assumptions of the student†s learning ability from their social classifications. For cultural factors, biased IQ test would be interconnected to substandard schools. These tests measure a student†s school achievement. And if there are substandard schools, the students who are placed into the higher groups, the will do better than those who are placed in a lower group. And thus these IQ tests would lead to the deficiency theory, which suggests that ‘the poor are poor because they do not measure up to the more well to do in intellectual endowment.† Also the social factor of racial discrimination is interconnected to the cultural factor of minority race. Those who are the minority, the main culture will produce basic assumptions about minority†s abilities to be successful or well to do. For political factors, meritocracy would be interconnected to minority race. Meritocracy basically is the social classification by ability. Thus the assumptions produced will the levels of ability. The power elite produces meritocracy. These are the people who believe that ‘the fundamental assumption of capitalism is individual gain without regard for what the resulting behaviors may mean for other people†, especially those in poverty. Also the poor are not significantly counted in the US Census, so the government is misinformed on the levels of poverty. How to cite The Economic Factors Affecting Poverty, Papers

Monday, April 27, 2020

Social Criticism In Literature Essays - Criticism, Discrimination

Social Criticism in Literature Many authors receive their inspiration for writing their literature from outside sources. The idea for a story could come from family, personal experiences, history, or even their own creativity. For authors that choose to write a book based on historical events, the inspiration might come from their particular viewpoint on the event that they want to dramatize. George Orwell and Charles Dickens wrote Animal Farm and A Tale of Two Cities, respectively, to express their disillusionment with society and human nature. Animal Farm, written in 1944, is a book that tells the animal fable of a farm in which the farm animals revolt against their human masters. It is an example of social criticism in literature in which Orwell satirized the events in Russia after the Bolshevik Revolution. He anthropomorphises the animals, and alludes each one to a counterpart in Russian history. A Tale of Two Cities also typifies this kind of literature. Besides the central theme of love, is another prevalent theme, that of a revolution gone bad. He shows us that, unfortunately, human nature causes us to be vengeful and, for some of us, overly ambitious. Both these books are similar in that both describe how, even with the best of intentions, our ambitions get the best of us. Both authors also demonstrate that violence and the Machiavellian attitude of "the ends justifying the means" are deplorable. George Orwell wrote Animal Farm, ". . . to discredit the Soviet system by showing its inhumanity and its back-sliding from ideals [he] valued . . ."(Gardner, 106) Orwell noted that " there exists in England almost no literature of disillusionment with the Soviet Union.' Instead, that country is viewed either with ignorant disapproval' or with uncritical admiration.'"(Gardner, 96) The basic synopsis is this: Old Major, an old boar in Manor Farm, tells the other animals of his dream of "animalism": " . . . Only get rid of Man, and the produce of our labour would be our own. Almost overnight we would become rich and free.'" (Orwell, 10) The other animals take this utopian idea to heart, and one day actually do revolt and drive the humans out. Two pigs emerge as leaders: Napoleon and Snowball. They coneztly argued, but one day, due to a difference over plans to build a windmill, Napoleon exiled Snowball. Almost immediately, Napoleon established a totalitarian government. Soon, the pigs began to get special favours, until finally, they were indistinguishable from humans to the other animals. Immediately the reader can begin to draw parallels between the book's characters and the government in 1917-44 Russia. For example, Old Major, who invented the idea of "animalism," is seen as representing Karl Marx, the creator of communism. Snowball represents Trotsky, a Russian leader after the revolution. He was driven out by Napoleon, who represents Stalin, the most powerful figure in the country. Napoleon then proceeded to remove the freedoms of the animals, and established a dictatorship, under the public veil of "animalism." Pigs represent the ruling class because of their stereotype: dirty animals with insatiable appetites. Boxer, the overworked, incredibly strong, dumb horse represents the common worker in Russia. The two surrounding farms represent two of the countries on the global stage with Russia at the time, Germany and England. Orwell begins his book by criticizing the capitalists and ruling elite, who are represented in Animal Farm by Mr. Jones, the farmer. He is shown as a negligent drunk, who coneztly starved his animals. "His character is already established as self-indulgent and uncaring." (King, 8) Orwell shows us how, "if only animals became aware of their strength, we should have no power over them, and that men exploit animals in much the same way as the rich exploit the proletariat." (Gardner, 97) What was established in Russia after the Bolshevik Revolution was not true communism ("animalism"), which Orwell approved of, where the people owned all the factories and land. Rather, "state communism" was established, where a central government owned them. Orwell thought that such a political system, "state communism," was open to exploitation by its leaders. Napoleon, after gaining complete control, did anything he wished - reserved the best for the pigs, and treated the animals cruelly. The animals could